posted on 2017-01-23 21:31
As short as possible:
apt-cache search = search for package (old) apt-cache show = show package information dpkg -l = show installed packages dpkg -L = show package contents dpkg -S = search packages for file apt-get install = install package (old) apt-get remove = uninstall package, leave configuration on disk (old) apt-get purge = uninstall package, delete configs (old) apt search = (new) apt install = (new) apt remove = (new) apt purge = (new)
posted on 2017-01-04 15:40
auto lo:1 iface lo:1 inet static address 127.0.0.2 netmask 255.0.0.0
ip a should show you the new ip being live.
posted on 2016-08-29 09:36
In short for x86_64:
wget https://dl-ssl.google.com/dl/linux/direct/mod-pagespeed-stable_current_amd64.deb dpkg -i mod-pagespeed-stable_current_amd64.deb service apache2 restart
posted on 2016-06-28 18:40
# add user useradd -m -U -G sudo -s /bin/bash nodejs # create random password for copy-pasting pwgen -A0 16 1 # set password passwd nodejs
# change user su nodejs # go to homedir cd # install ### you could also use for version 4, instead of v6 as we will do ##curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_4.x | sudo bash - curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_6.x | sudo bash - sudo apt-get install -y nodejs # back to root exit
If you just install the nodejs package without executing the script,
npm, nodejs's package manager will be missing.
# remove complete sudo deluser nodejs sudo # let our user handle node installl stuff # `visudo` for editing `/etc/sudoers`, then put in there: Cmnd_Alias NODE_CMDS = /usr/bin/npm nodejs ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: NODE_CMDS
posted on 2016-06-05 19:23
You should have like 50G of harddisk space available. Since I currently don't (SSD), I use an external harddisk.
apt install build-essential kernel-package libssl-dev xz-utils ncurses-dev
These are like ~1,3G of additional files on your main system, if you install without the
Head over to kernel.org and download the source of the kernel of your choice. You should know what stable means and wether you want to use a release client or not, else get the stable kernel.
I will use the current RC release.
tar xJvf linux-4.7-rc1.tar.xz cd linux-4.7-rc1/ # copy currently used configuration. otherwise use `make menuconfig`. cp /boot/config-`uname -r` . yes "" | make oldconfig # see how many cores you can use for compiling # count amount of cores on top, then press 'q' htop # build, pass corecount with '-j' flag make-kpkg -j4 --append-to-version "-sjas" --initrd buildpackage # if the previous step failed, do these ## make clean ## rm -rf .config ## make menuconfig # save to .config and exit immediatly ## then redo the previous make-kpkg
I also had a more specific error last time:
make: *** No rule to make target 'firstname.lastname@example.org', needed by 'certs/x509_certificate_list'. Stop. Makefile:985: recipe for target 'certs' failed
Solution was to comment the
CONFIG_SYSTEM_TRUSTED_KEYS line out from my
posted on 2016-05-23 00:52
To set both the pseudoterminals and the virtual consoles up to have CTRL instead of CAPSLOCK:
Save and run:
dpkg-reconfigure -phigh console-setup
posted on 2015-12-02 22:14:55
Additionally to the bonding config, there is also a bridge setup, as this was for a proxmox setup.o
The needed packages:
apt-get install ifenslave bridge-utils
ifenslave is for bonding,
bridge-utils for bridging.
The actual config: (replace the 10.0.0.x IP Stuff)
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system # and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5). source /etc/network/interfaces.d/* # The loopback network interface auto lo iface lo inet loopback # external bond auto bond0 iface bond0 inet manual bond_mode 802.3ad bond_xmit_hash_policy layer2+3 bond_lacp_rate fast slaves eth0 eth2 bond_miimon 100 bond_downdelay 200 bond_updelay 200 # crosslink / internal bond auto bond1 iface bond1 inet static address 192.168.100.2/24 network 192.168.100.0 broadcast 126.96.36.199 slaves eth1 eth3 bond_mode balance-rr bond_miimon 100 bond_downdelay 200 bond_updelay 200 # bridge extern auto vmbr0 iface vmbr0 inet static address 10.0.0.2/24 network 10.0.0.0 broadcast 10.0.0.255 gateway 10.0.0.1 dns-nameservers 188.8.131.52 bridge_ports bond0 bridge_stp off bridge_fd 0
posted on 2015-06-19 19:53:32
Migrating a website can be a tedious task, if you have problems keeping several things at once inside your head. This aims to solve this problem by presenting some proper guidelines.
Here we have a standard dynamic website with a mysql backend, served through an apache httpd.
For other databases/webservers the steps may differ in particular, but essentially this is the same theory everytime.
Mailmigration will as of now not be a part of this here, since it's gonna be long enough anyway.
Read this completely prior, as alternative ways are suggested sometimes.
This part is almost the most important, actual copying is usually not that hard if you know what you are doing. It's often harder to remember everything.
Before we start, the server can serve data of three kinds which are handled all the same way.
web data, just copy the website code database, copy the database dump file emails, copy the mailfiles
The server is accessed via the globally available...:
Basically these are the things you have to copy/adjust so things will go smooth.
Putting most of these questions plus the answers to them into a spreadsheed is not the worst idea. Maybe I will come up with a shell one-liner to create a .csv later.
Also it is helpful if you are able to do FXP (transfer files from one host directly to the other, without temporary saving the data/files locally), if you do not have SSH access.
server access via ssh is possible?
ssh works via key? or password only?
root account? (a lot of this guide assumes root privileges, I might have missed points there are no alternatives)
if not, do you have all necessary account credentials for all folders etc.?
DO THESE WORK?
if no ssh, do you have ftp credentials?
do the credentials actually work?
do you get a database dump you can transfer? (If you cannot access the server, you can't make a dump.)
are the folder accurately named?
how BIG is the webfolder? (so how long will copying take?)
which database management system is used? (i.e. mysql or postgres)
database credentials for it are?
what is the database the site is using actually called?
just how BIG is the database? (and so how long will copying take?)
what domains are pointing to the server?
are these actually active?
and can you change the DNS RR?
what are the DNS TTL times?
is mailing configured?
don't forget the DNS MX RR/RR's while at the last point
For finding out about the dns, if you have several virtual hosts on the same machine, try grepping them all there.
When having an apache,
grep all vhost files for
Here's a kind-of snippet, which will work if your apache vhost configs are in default locations and indented:
\grep -e '^\s\+Server' /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/*
This shows only active sites, check
sites-available if you have to migrate sites which are currently turned off, too.
The resulting list, if sanitized, can be piped on the shell and used with something like
dig +short, to easily check which domains are still running.
Check all the records, not just the
AAAA (quad-A is ipv4, single-A is ipv4) records, also MX and whatever is set.
If the exit code is non-zero, no dns anymore and less work for you.
Providing a script here would not help much, since you should know what you are doing here anyway and it would most likely not help you much.
In case the apache config is, lets say, 'adventurous', do
apache2ctl -S (Debian/Ubuntu) or
httpd -S to see which domains are hosted, and in which file these are defined.
Then search there for
If the webserver happens to have all vhosts defined in one huge file (which ist just... very not great), remove the configuration and place them into a separated file.
In Debian-based Linuces you can use
a2ensite <vhost-config-filename> /
a2dissite <vhost-config-filename> to enable/disable single websites easily.
On Redhat-based ones you create the symlinks to the configfolder apache is configured to load manually and delete them also by hand. (This isn't any different from what
All this only for the sites you want to migrate.
Of course, you can just comment out the information on your vhosts from the config, but just... don't.
For other webservers all this is different, of course, but you get the idea.
Refer to the website via its main link.
ServerName from above.)
But make sure to note all other aliases there, too.
ServerAlias from above.)
Since you can only migrate one site after another, this helps to keep track.
Write all this down, each alias in another row.
Maybe put the inactive ones into an extra column there, too.
Could be that these should be prolonged again, or were incorrectly set.
(I.e. it did not point to the webserver when you checked.)
Write the set TTL into the next column, along with the current date. (Usually TTL is 86400, which means 24 hours, which is exactly how long it will take until your change to 1800 seconds becomes finally active. If the TTL was longer than 86400 for whatever reason, note that into your list, too!)
After having created a list and checked which domains are currently active, set the default TTL time to 1800. (Just don't go below, 30 mins are short while you do the migration. Also the registrar might prefer you not to.)
If you have A LOT of websites that should go from one server to the next, try migrating and testing everything (via entries in the hosts file). Then switch the ip's of the servers with each other. That way no dns changes are needed (except if you have dead domains), because this shit can become tedious, too.
Nothing more here now, until i am motivated again to write more stuff up.
posted on 2015-03-05 11:13:00
To show all successful login attempts on a debian-based system:
cat /var/log/secure | grep 'sshd.*opened'
Same for RHEL:
cat /var/log/auth.log | grep 'sshd.*opened'
cat /var/log/auth.log | grep 'sshd.*Invalid'
cat /var/log/secure | grep 'sshd.*Invalid'
posted on 2015-02-04 13:55:58
To install and not having to care about package dependency hell, here's a walkthrough:
Step 8 as root, so emacs will be available system-wide.
posted on 2014-10-30 19:53:49
.rpm files in debian (If god likes you, then they just may.), you have to convert them to
.deb formatted files.
alien is the weapon of choice.
# apt-get install alien
To convert and install:
alien <packagename>.rpm dpkg -i <packagename_converted>.deb
To convert and install in one step:
alien -i <packagename>.rpm
By default, the version number of the .rpm files will be incremented by one.
If you do not want this behaviour, you might try the
posted on 2014-09-08 11:27:38
To reset mysql passwords, connect from the commandline to the mysql daemon.
But like this:
service mysql stop
mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables --skip-networking. That way no pw checks are made, and network connections are disabled, only localhost connections are enabled. (Security!)
mysql -Ne "update mysql.user set password=password('this_is_the_new_password') where user='root'; flush privileges;"
killall -9 mysqld_safe
service mysql start
If it is not working,
service mysql stop again, start
mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables --skip-networking and fix the password, as you likely had a copy-paste or typing in there the last time.
posted on 2014-08-27 17:57:37
To double all the base tomcat memory limits, use this:
JAVA_OPTS="-Djava.awt.headless=true -XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC -Xms512m -Xmx1024m -XX:MaxPermSize=256m"
This edits the startup settings of tomcat. The parts in question are these:
# set the minimum heap size -Xms512m # set the maximum heap size -Xmx1024m # set the permgen space size -XX:MaxPermSize=256m
Try these if your tomcat has hickups.
posted on 2014-08-26 16:40:50
When debugging SSH connections, or rather their connection establishment mishaps, check the logs:
Usually this does suffice.
If not, increase the Log Level in
posted on 2014-08-12 10:20:19
To change the java version used, on a debian install, which is used by tomcat, change
There you have to change the
JAVA_HOME setting accordingly.
JAVA_HOME by hand is no use, and changing the init script in
/etc/init.d/tomcat7 is not just ugly and bad style, but michgt also be overwritten by future updates.
posted on 2014-08-07 09:51:29
To create a password and put it into you clipboard immediatly, use this line in your window manager's global shortcuts:
echo `\pwgen -cn 18 -1` | cut -d' ' -f1 | tr -d "\n" | xclip
posted on 2014-08-05 10:23:00
To run wireshark as a non-root user, do this (as root, or use sudo):
apt-get install wireshark dpkg-reconfigure wireshark-common usermod -a -G wireshark USER # logout and login for new environment, for testing do: groups USER ## should lack group wireshark su USER groups USER ## should now have group wireshark and thus work wireshark
posted on 2014-08-04 16:24:52
If you have lost your mysql root password, and you happen to be on a debian system, you have luck:
[sjas@test ~]# cat /etc/mysql/debian.cnf # Automatically generated for Debian scripts. DO NOT TOUCH! [client] host = localhost user = debian-sys-maint password = r51fkvVRogY4i5oj socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock [mysql_upgrade] host = localhost user = debian-sys-maint password = R51fkvVRogY4i5oj socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock basedir = /usr
On debian, a system user with the same rights as mysql's root is created upon install. This one is used for mysql updates, for example.
So you can login into mysql, using the password from above:
$ sudo mysql -u debian-sys-maint -p Enter password: Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g. Your MySQL connection id is 37 Server version: 5.5.38-0+wheezy1 (Debian) Copyright (c) 2000, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement. mysql> update mysql.user set Password=PASSWORD('my-new-and-secret-password') where user='root'; flush privileges; exit; Query OK, 4 rows affected (0.01 sec) Rows matched: 4 Changed: 4 Warnings: 0 Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) Bye $
In this example the root PW got set to
posted on 2014-07-31 13:45:12
To get an apache running to serve different ip's and sites at once, all on port 80, plus handing requests through to tomcat, this guide tries to explain the neccesary steps.
First, set up a second ip for proper networking:
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system # and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5). # The loopback network interface auto lo iface lo inet loopback #allow-hotplug eth0 auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 10.0.0.21 netmask 255.255.255.0 network 10.0.0.0 broadcast 10.0.0.255 gateway 10.0.0.1 auto eth0:1 iface eth0:1 inet static address 10.0.0.22 netmask 255.255.255.0
For security reasons, the actual subnet used was exchanged to
10.0.0.. Use your own. :)
IP 1 is
10.0.0.21, IP 2 is
Do not forget to take the interface up afterwards:
$ ifdown eth0 $ ifup eth0
Also do not use
service networking restart, it is a deprecated command.
Do not use
ip l set eth0 down and
ip l set eth0 up for this.
It will bring the link back up, but you won't have ip addresses assigned.
For more information, the iproute2 tool suite is really mighty, but you may need some more in-depth-knowledge.
$ ip a
should show you something like this:
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00 inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo 2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000 link/ether 00:25:90:ea:45:ac brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 10.0.0.21/24 brd 10.0.0.255 scope global eth0 inet 10.0.0.22/24 brd 10.0.0.255 scope global secondary eth0:1
state UP (not
DOWN) and you see both IP's properly assigned.
If you do not use a syntax like
eth0:1 for the second ip in
/etc/network/interfaces, you will only see one ip shown by the deprecated
Tomcat setting should best be left untouched, so it uses localhost and port 8080 to listen on.
<Connector port="8080" protocol="HTTP/1.1" connectionTimeout="20000" URIEncoding="UTF-8" redirectPort="8443" address="localhost"/>
mod_proxy was not be used, here for
address the second ip could be set (10.0.0.22), and
port to 80.
However you'd need a linux system account, if you want to use a port below 1024.
If you do not want this, you have to use either
The latter is the fastest and has most setting, but sure is more complex, too.
mod_proxy_ajp is in between both, speed-wise.
mod_proxy however works with any backend, not just tomcat or other servlet containers.
Listen 80 Listen 443 NameVirtualHost 10.0.0.21:80 NameVirtualHost 10.0.0.21:443
Note that, you may need to drop the
443 lines, if you do not use https.
NameVirtualHost directive tells apache, to enable name-based virtual host support.
This is needed, since our apache serves several domains.
If the directive were to be omitted, then apache would only ever serve the first domain it would have in it's loading process.
(Can be shown via
Since Tomcat serves only one site, no name-based virtual hosting is needed for it, thus no entry is needed.
Further is assumed, that you already have two existing vhost files, which are properly structured, are enabled and work, for each domain.
The sites are named
tomcatsite.org and already reside in
First IP: 10.0.0.21
<VirtualHost 10.0.0.21:80> ServerName firstsite.de ServerAlias www.firstsite.de ...
<VirtualHost 10.0.0.21:80> ServerName secondsite.de ServerAlias www.secondsite.de ...
Second IP: 10.0.0.22
<VirtualHost 10.0.0.22:80> ServerName tomcatsite.org ServerAlias www.tomcatsite.org ... ProxyPass / http://localhost:8080/ ProxyPassReverse / http://localhost:8080/ ...
002- are just prefixes, to ensure the order of the pages being loaded.
Enable the apache proxy module.
$ a2enmod proxy $ a2enmod proxy_http
Enable the vhost configs and restart the web server.
$ a2ensite 000-firstsite.de $ a2ensite 001-secondsite.de $ a2ensite 002-proxy-for-tomcat $ service apache2 restart
posted on 2014-07-21 11:13:46
To put the contents of a file directly into the clipboard, there exist several different ways.
One possibility is to mark,
SHIFT-DEL, or whatever is used in you application for copying.
Klipper, besides providing the functionality of having a memory, also enable the system to copy every selection you make (with your mouse) into the clipboard.
All this is helpful, but once you have content that spans several screen pages, this gets old pretty fast.
Solution on debian:
$ sudo apt-get install xclip
$ echo test | xclip ## clipboard contains now string 'test' $ cat file.txt | xclip ## clipboard contains content of file 'test.txt'
posted on 2014-07-09 16:50:55
Downgrading packages can become important once an
apt-get update && apt-get upgrade breaks something.
Most of the following must be done as
root. Since you need to be for
To find out the packages in question, look here:
/var/log/apt/term.log /var/log/dpkg.log /var/log/apt/history.log
Beware of the logrotating, in case you do not find anything. Use
zcat on these
A handy script to gather all information into on single place:
cd /var/log/apt && cat history.log > ~/apthistory.log && zcat history.log*gz >> ~/apthistory.log
That you all your logs get aggregated into
apthistory.log in your homefolder.
If you are using synaptic, you can check the logs through it, too.
apt-cache showpkg <package>
Package is the name you usually use when using
In the last section, you may find info on the version to use. It doesn't help that the manpage tells you to look at apt's source code for more information. (Yes, it does that for real...)
If you can't help but feeling lost, that's normal.
The other approaches are skimming through the aforementioned logs with grep and more grep. Or using google, which is harder than one might imagine.
apt-get install <packagename>=<version number>
Beware you might need the
:i386 extension for the package name, too.
echo '<packagename> hold' | dpkg --set-selections
To undo this:
echo '<packagename> install' | dpkg --set-selections
To show what currently gets upgraded or not:
dpkg --get-selections | grep 'install' dpkg --get-selections | grep 'hold'
Keep in mind that things might break in a later update & upgrade, if you do not fix the cause of your problem. The package you downgraded might be needed in a newer version by a lot of other packages, it's just a question of time.
posted on 2014-05-21 06:23:43
If you need
javaws with oracle java (not that IcedTea crap), and have it installed already, but lost your settings due to an update, do:
$ update-alternatives --config javaws
This will show you something like this:
There are 6 choices for the alternative javaws (providing /usr/bin/javaws).
Selection Path Priority Status ------------------------------------------------------------ * 0 /usr/lib/jvm/java-7-openjdk-amd64/jre/bin/javaws 1071 auto mode 1 /usr/lib/jvm/j2re1.7-oracle/bin/javaws 316 manual mode 2 /usr/lib/jvm/j2sdk1.7-oracle/jre/bin/javaws 317 manual mode 3 /usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk-amd64/jre/bin/javaws 1061 manual mode 4 /usr/lib/jvm/java-7-openjdk-amd64/jre/bin/javaws 1071 manual mode 5 /usr/lib/jvm/java-7-oracle/bin/javaws 9 manual mode 6 /usr/lib/jvm/java-7-oracle/jre/bin/javaws 1064 manual mode Press enter to keep the current choice[*], or type selection number:
Choose the according number and be happy.
posted on 2014-05-15 14:43:12
sysv-rc-conf for this.
It will show an curses GUI, where you can edit the present settings.
Get it from apt:
$ apt-get install sysv-rc-conf
posted on 2014-05-14 17:13:39
First install mercurial if you do not have it already.
--version to check.
$ apt-get install mercurial
Then get the vim sources and compile:
$ hg clone https://vim.googlecode.com/hg/ vim $ cd vim/src $ make
If it fails with an error like this one:
checking for tgetent in -ltinfo... no checking for tgetent in -lncurses... no checking for tgetent in -ltermlib... no checking for tgetent in -ltermcap... no checking for tgetent in -lcurses... no no terminal library found checking for tgetent()... configure: error: NOT FOUND! You need to install a terminal library; for example ncurses. Or specify the name of the library with --with-tlib. make: *** [auto/config.mk] Error 1
Try installing an ncurses library:
$ apt-get install libncurses5
Afterwards all should be fine.
If however you desire specific functions (like using the powerline statusbar), you might need python support compiled into vim. Along with this there are some other things I need, too, which are shown below.
Enable it by preparing via
./configure \ --enable-python3interp \ --with-python-config-dir=/usr/lib/python3.2/config-3.2mu \ --with-x=yes \ --with-features=normal \ --disable-gui \ --prefix=$HOME/dev/vim
This enables python 3 (for python 2, the command is the same, just lacking the '3'), the config dir is important, too.
X support is baked in for clipboard stuff, IIRC.
The featureset is normal. (See
:h +feature for what is included.)
GUI is disabled since I never use gvim.
At last, the install directory is in $HOME/dev, because I prefer the vim install being there along with other dev tools.
The tricky stuff for enabling python is to not forget the python dev packages, in my case via
apt-get install python3-dev.
If python does not want to work, vim needs python's config dir location, and there has to be the
config.c file located.
Else installation will work, but you will not notice why it did now work as expected.
grep python -C3 via a pipe, i.e.
$ ./configure \ --enable-python3interp \ --with-python-config-dir=/usr/lib/python3.2/config-3.2mu \ --with-x=yes \ --with-features=normal \ --disable-gui \ --prefix=$HOME/dev/vim | grep python -C3`
That way you will be able to notice if the
./configure step is borked.
./configure caches the steps it has made.
This is the case when the
./configure ... output has (cached) appended.
In this case just delete the
config.cache file within the
posted on 2014-04-25 12:52:31
Sometimes you need the reference implementation (And not, i.e. the OpenJDK one that is easily available from the package repositories...) from the Oracle homepage. Might be you need exactly Java in v6 or v7 for IPMI for your Supermicro servers.
In this case several problem pop up:
.tar.gz, might have problems installing it.
/etc/apt/sources.listmight also cause other problems, depending on the information you dig up from the internet.
So here is a better approach, which is easier to reproduce and will work.
First download the install of choice. (Choose the 32bit .tar.gz or the 64 bit one, according to your system. I.e. jdk-7u55-linux-x64.tar.gz)
$ apt-get install java-package $ make-jpkg jdk-7u55-linux-x64.tar.gz
Say yes and ok, and let it work it's magic. Do not worry about error messages, at least in my case they were not of importance.
$ dpkg -i oracle-j2re1.7_1.7.0+update55_amd64.deb
And you are mostly done.
Only problem left might be that all is installed correctly, just the
Check by running:
If this does not work, due to previously installed IcedTea implementation or whatnot, try this:
$ cd /etc/alternatives $ ls java*
Then everything should point to the oracle install.
In my case everything did. Except the Web Start Link.
$ rm javaws $ ln -s /usr/lib/jvm/java-7-oracle/bin/javaws javaws
and you might see something like this:
[root@ctr-014 ~/Downloads]% javaws Java(TM) Web Start 10.55.2.13-fcs Usage: javaws [run-options] <jnlp-file> javaws [control-options] where run-options include: -verbose display additional output -offline run the application in offline mode -system run the application from the system cache only -Xnosplash run without showing a splash screen -J<option> supply option to the vm -wait start java process and wait for its exit control-options include: -viewer show the cache viewer in the java control panel -clearcache remove all non-installed applications from the cache -uninstall remove all applications from the cache -uninstall <jnlp-file> remove the application from the cache -import [import-options] <jnlp-file> import the application to the cache import-options include: -silent import silently (with no user interface) -system import application into the system cache -codebase <url> retrieve resources from the given codebase -shortcut install shortcuts as if user allowed prompt -association install associations as if user allowed prompt
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