Posts from 2014-12

Linux: kill all processes of a user immediatly

posted on 2014-12-29 17:04:21

To kill all processes belonging to a particular user, combine kill with lsof:

kill -9 `lsof -t -u <username>`

sup mail user agent

posted on 2014-12-28 20:43:22

This is a proper tutorial on how to set up the sup MUA on a linux system. The post is very likely to be expanded in the future, as at first here are only rough annotations collected.

Common pitfalls

  • ruby gem hell
  • apt-get hell
  • missing header files due to no having the development packages installed.
  • failing to understand that sup will not fetch mails from the server
  • having used sup-config but not having finished the complete install procedure

Maybe you stumble upon having set up sup already via sup-config, but upon retrying you get errors? Try deleting the ~/.sup folder.

Lastly I had no luck trying to use the distro's packages, such that I just stuck to the git clone from the mirror in It's called The hacker's Mail User Agent, after all. But to be honest, I could be out of luck with the prepackaged binaries may as well be related to me having had problems with the ruby gems in the beginning. I guess I will never know.



Installation on CentOS 7 are to be described here. This is mostly to have a list of .rpm's and gems that are needed.



Installation on Debian 7 'wheezy' / 8 'jessie' are here described. This is mostly to have a list of .deb's and gems that are needed.


vmware esxi cim provider restart

posted on 2014-12-11 18:39:41

To restart the cim provider (service for hardware monitoring), when it dies on the German edition, do:

  1. connect to the hypervisor
  2. mark hypervisor in left frame
  3. 'konfiguration' tab
  4. box 'software', choose 'sicherheitsprofil'
  5. 'eigenschaften' of 'sicherheitsprofil/dienste'
  6. choose 'cim-server', the last option when you scroll down
  7. button 'optionen...'
  8. button 'neu starten'
  9. or first 'beenden' then 'starten', if 'neu starten' does not want to work.

Easy, you see? There's a reason I prefer proxmox to this 'enterprise software'...

OpenSSL Ciphers

posted on 2014-12-10 18:00:06

This will show you the currently availably secure ciphers:

openssl ciphers 'HIGH:MEDIUM:!MD5:!RC4:!aNULL:!eNULL:!EXPORT:!SEED:!PSK' | sed 's/:/\n/g'

The sed afterwards is just so you will have the output with one cipher per line.

The part after 'ciphers' and before the pipe is what you actually have to put into your apache config.

Pidgin log location in Linux

posted on 2014-12-04 07:59:15

Pidgin locates it's logs in ~/.purple/logs. In case you should ever feel the need to grep them.

grep: extract different IP addresses from log

posted on 2014-12-03 14:22:16

To easily grep different IP addresses out of a given log file, pipe its contents to this:

| grep -oE '([0-9]{1,3}[\.]){3}[0-9]{1,3}' | sort | uniq

Or, if you want counts of the IP's, too, how often these were found, try using uniq -c:

| grep -oE '([0-9]{1,3}[\.]){3}[0-9]{1,3}' | sort | uniq -c

In example:

cat /var/log/messages | grep -oE '([0-9]{1,3}[\.]){3}[0-9]{1,3}' | sort | uniq -c

I will not show output here, because I am not in the mood to create a test file which contains no actually used IP's.

Defining shortcuts in xfce

posted on 2014-12-02 00:26:46

Having a terminal pop open on a keypress is not just nice, it's essential.


Applications Menu
Settings Editor
Channel: xfce4-keyboard-shortcuts

... create a new custom shortcut:
Property : /commands/custom/<Super>r
Type     : String
Value    : xterm

Save, Exit

This defines [Left Win Key] + r to open a new xterm window.

Linux 'less', advantages, disadvantages, keys, options

posted on 2014-12-01 07:46:36

Being the default pager on linux, and thus the tool you use to look manpages at usually, less is worth some more attention.

key points

Unlike editors or IDE's (vi, emacs, nano, eclipse), pagers (at least less) do not have to load a file completely into memory and thus are faster when displaying huge files. If you happen to think you will never have to open files bigger than some KB size, what about some error logs? (Once I saw a machine write like one additional GB per minute. In this case, you should maybe refrain from less and just use like tail -n1000.)

Also, compared to more, less can also scroll backwards. (!!!)


Pagers cannot edit text. That's what editors are for.



q                       quit
h                       show help
= or ctrl-g             show current file name
r                       redraw screen
s                       save file (if input comes from a pipe, not a file)

v                       edit file with $VISUAL or $EDITOR

!<command>              execute <command> in $SHELL
!<mark><command>        pipe text contents between cursor and <mark> to <command>


f or ctrl-f or space    move forward one page
b or ctrl-b             move backward one page 

g                       top of first page
G                       bottom of last page

<count>p                go to <count> percent line in text

d                       forward half a page
u                       backward half a page

m<char>                 mark line with <char>
'<char>                 jump to mark <char>o
''                      goto previous position 


/<pattern>              search forward for <pattern>
?<pattern>              search backward for <pattern>

n                       next match
N                       previous match

! or ^N                 prior to <pattern>, will search for non-matching lines
^K                      prior to <pattern>, just mark lines but don't move cursor
^R                      don't use regexes for searching

&<pattern>              SHOW ONLY MATCHES (about the best less command ever)

Especially the | hotkey might be interesting.

To pipe the complete buffer content into a file, do this:

1. g (go to top of file)
2. | (start pipe)
3. $ (pipe until the end of buffer)
4. tee [name of logfile].log

Afterwards you should have a new file. This works both with piped input as well as opened files.


startup options

All options with dashes can be used while running less, or as startup commands.


+F                      same as 'tail -f', but with less
+/<pattern>             open file at <pattern>

+ is needed during startup, from within less its not needed except when you want to reset a option to its default value.

search options

-A                      search starts after target line
-g                      highlight last search result
-G                      highlight search results
-I                      completely case insensitive searching
-i                      smartcase: case-insensitive if search string contains no upper case
-J                      show status column (to mark lines with search results)
                        left of the the text, lines with matches are marked.
F                       'Waiting for data... (interrupt to abort)' (means ^C)
                        This is basically a 'tail -f' on stereoids!

system options


`-` prior sets / changes the option
`_` just shows it's current state

-e                      quit at EOF
-M                      toggle long prompt (filename, lines, line %)
-m                      toggle medium prompt (line %)
-N                      show line numbers
-Q                      quiet all terminal bells (!!!)
-R                      output raw control chars = SHOW COLORS
-s                      squeeze multiple blank lines into one
-S                      don't wrap long lines

-P                      define custom promtps
                        See last section here about further information.

custom prompts

   %bX      Replaced by the byte offset into the current input file.   
            The  b  is followed by a single character (shown as X above) 
            which specifies the line whose byte offset is to be used.  
            If the character is a "t", the byte  offset of the top line in 
            the display is used, an "m" means use the middle line, a "b" 
            means use the bottom line, a "B" means use the line  just  after  
            the  bottom line, and a "j" means use the "target" line, 
            as specified by the -j option.

   %B       Replaced by the size of the current input file.

   %c       Replaced by the column number of the text appearing in the 
            first column of the screen.

   %dX      Replaced by the page number of a line in the input file.  
            The line to be used is determined by the X, as with the %b option.

   %D       Replaced by the number of pages in the input file, or quivalently, 
            the page number of the last line in the input file.

   %E       Replaced by the name of the editor (from the VISUAL 
            environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable 
            if VISUAL is  not  defined).
            See the discussion of the LESSEDIT feature below.

   %f       Replaced by the name of the current input file.

   %F       Replaced by the last component of the name of the current input file.

   %i       Replaced by the index of the current file in the list of input files.

   %lX      Replaced by the line number of a line in the input file.  
            The line to be used is determined by the X, as with the %b option.

   %L       Replaced by the line number of the last line in the input file.

   %m       Replaced by the total number of input files.

   %pX      Replaced by the percent into the current input file,  
            based on byte offsets.  
            The line used is determined by the X as with the %b option.

   %PX      Replaced  by  the  percent into the current input file, 
            based on line numbers.   
            The line used is determined by the X as with the %b option.

   %s       Same as %B.

   %t       Causes any trailing spaces to be removed.  
            Usually used at the end of the string, but may appear anywhere.

   %x       Replaced by the name of the next input file in the list.

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