Posts from 2014-10

Convert .rpm's to .deb's

posted on 2014-10-30 19:53:49

To use .rpm files in debian (If god likes you, then they just may.), you have to convert them to .deb formatted files. alien is the weapon of choice.

# apt-get install alien

To convert and install:

alien <packagename>.rpm
dpkg -i <packagename_converted>.deb

To convert and install in one step:

alien -i <packagename>.rpm

By default, the version number of the .rpm files will be incremented by one. If you do not want this behaviour, you might try the -k flag.

Adaptec arcconf manual

posted on 2014-10-29 18:33:01

To use Adaptec's 'uniform command line interface' on linux easily, here is a list of the most used commands.

After having connected to the server, cd /usr/StorMan. There you use the arcconf executable.

First a pro tip:

alias asdf=/usr/StorMan/arcconf

This lets you use asdf for calling the executable, instead of either ./arcconf or (god forbid) /usr/StorMan/arcconf. In the following text I refrained from using the asdf alias, but usually it's the first thing I do when connecting to a box and want to work with the raid controller's CLI. Analoguous for LSI the alias is usually alias asdf=/path/where/your/executable/is/as/MegaCli64. ;)

Usually you need getconfig, getstatus, identify, rescan when exchanging disks. RAID's are usually built prior to OS installation,

The only tricky part is not messing up the numbers with which the commands have to be used. (Usually it's the off-by-one errors.) But that's easy once you got used to it. Worse are physical problems like broken backplanes, missing wirings or malfunctioning LED's...

Hostnames are changed in the following to protect the partly innocent. ;)

overview

root@some-server:/usr/StorMan# ./arcconf 

  | UCLI |  Adaptec uniform command line interface
  | UCLI |  Version 6.50 (B18579)
  | UCLI |  (C) Adaptec 2003-2010
  | UCLI |  All Rights Reserved

 ATAPASSWORD             | Setting password on a physical drive
 COPYBACK                | toggles controller copy back mode
 CREATE                  | creates a logical device
 DATASCRUB               | toggles the controller background consistency check mode
 DELETE                  | deletes one or more logical devices
 FAILOVER                | toggles the controller automatic failover mode
 GETCONFIG               | prints controller information
 GETLOGS                 | gets controller log information
 GETSMARTSTATS           | gets the SMART statistics
 GETSTATUS               | displays the status of running tasks
 GETVERSION              | prints version information for all controllers
 IDENTIFY                | blinks LEDS on device(s) connected to a controller
 IMAGEUPDATE             | update physical device firmware
 KEY                     | installs a Feature Key onto a controller
 MODIFY                  | performs RAID Level Migration or Online Capacity Expansion
 RESCAN                  | checks for new or removed drives
 RESETSTATISTICSCOUNTERS | resets the controller statistics counters
 ROMUPDATE               | updates controller firmware
 SAVESUPPORTARCHIVE      | saves the support archive 
 SETALARM                | controls the controller alarm, if present
 SETCACHE                | adjusts physical or logical device cache mode
 SETCONFIG               | restores the default configuration
 SETMAXIQCACHE           | adjusts MaxIQ Cache settings for physical or logical device
 SETNAME                 | renames a logical device given its logical device number
 SETNCQ                  | toggles the controller NCQ status
 SETPERFORM              | changes adapter settings based on application
 SETPOWER                | power settings for controller or logical device
 SETPRIORITY             | changes specific or global task priority
 SETSTATE                | manually sets the state of a physical or logical device
 SETSTATSDATACOLLECTION  | toggles the controller statistics data collection modes
 TASK                    | performs a task such as build/verify on a physical or logical device

root@some-server:/usr/StorMan# 

./arcconf GETSTATUS

Just the controller status.

root@some-server:/usr/StorMan# ./arcconf getstatus 1
Controllers found: 1
Logical device Task:
   Logical device                 : 0
   Task ID                        : 100
   Current operation              : Rebuild
   Status                         : In Progress
   Priority                       : High
   Percentage complete            : 42


Command completed successfully.
root@some-server:/usr/StorMan# 

The 1 is the id of the first (and in this system the only) adaptec raid controller. Unlike the disks, counting starts at 1. Which is usually all you need.

Further the status tells 'rebuilding' (since a new harddisk got inserted), being at 42%.

./arcconf IDENTIFY

This helps to find a drive in question, usually by letting the front panel LED of the disk bay blink. But not only a single drive can be made blinking, also all drives of a logical drive / RAID array can be 'highlighted'.

The first number is the controller id (as mentioned above, usually always 1), the second either the logical drive id. Or if it is a number pair, its the channel id plus the drive id.

highlight single drive

root@some-server:/usr/StorMan# ./arcconf identify 1 device 0 0
Controllers found: 1
The specified device is blinking.
Press any key to stop the blinking.

Command completed successfully.
root@some-server:/usr/StorMan# 

First zero is the channel (and usually zero), second the drive id.

highlight whole array

root@some-server:/usr/StorMan# ./arcconf identify 1 logicaldrive 0
Controllers found: 1
The specified device is blinking.
Press any key to stop the blinking.

Command completed successfully.
root@some-server:/usr/StorMan# ./arcconf identify 1 logicaldrive 1
Controllers found: 1
The specified device is blinking.
Press any key to stop the blinking.

Command completed successfully.
[root@some-server:/usr/StorMan# 

This lets at first blink the first array, then the second one. Counting starts at '0' here, unlike with the controller where '1' is preferred.

./arcconf GETCONFIG

Business as usual, usually the first number is the controller id, and so, 1. (...) By omitting the one you get the available parameters:

root@some-server:/usr/StorMan# ./arcconf getconfig 

 Usage: GETCONFIG <Controller#> [AD | LD [LD#] | PD | [AL]]
 ======================================================

 Prints controller configuration information.

    Option  AD  : Adapter information only
            LD  : Logical device information only
            LD# : Optionally display information about the specified logical device
            PD  : Physical device information only
            AL  : All information (optional)
root@some-server:/usr/StorMan#

If no parameter is given, AL is used as the default.

If checking the logical devices via LD, you can also pass the id of the 'drive' in question.

adapter used - AD

root@some-server:/usr/StorMan# ./arcconf getconfig 1 AD
Controllers found: 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Controller information
----------------------------------------------------------------------
   Controller Status                        : Optimal
   Channel description                      : SAS/SATA
   Controller Model                         : Adaptec 5805
   Controller Serial Number                 : 1D2211A7A42
   Physical Slot                            : 5
   Temperature                              : 75 C/ 167 F (Normal)
   Installed memory                         : 512 MB
   Copyback                                 : Disabled
   Background consistency check             : Disabled
   Automatic Failover                       : Enabled
   Global task priority                     : High
   Performance Mode                         : Default/Dynamic
   Stayawake period                         : Disabled
   Spinup limit internal drives             : 0
   Spinup limit external drives             : 0
   Defunct disk drive count                 : 0
   Logical devices/Failed/Degraded          : 2/0/1
   SSDs assigned to MaxIQ Cache pool        : 0
   Maximum SSDs allowed in MaxIQ Cache pool : 8
   MaxIQ Read Cache Pool Size               : 0.000 GB
   MaxIQ cache fetch rate                   : 0
   MaxIQ Cache Read, Write Balance Factor   : 3,1
   NCQ status                               : Enabled
   Statistics data collection mode          : Enabled
   --------------------------------------------------------
   Controller Version Information
   --------------------------------------------------------
   BIOS                                     : 5.2-0 (18252)
   Firmware                                 : 5.2-0 (18252)
   Driver                                   : 1.2-1 (40700)
   Boot Flash                               : 5.2-0 (18252)
   --------------------------------------------------------
   Controller Battery Information
   --------------------------------------------------------
   Status                                   : Not Installed


Command completed successfully.
root@some-server:/usr/StorMan#

Controller used here can be seen being a 5805 without a BBU (Battery Backup Unit). No Read or Write Caching enabled.

logical drives - LD or LD

root@some-server:/usr/StorMan# ./arcconf getconfig 1 ld
Controllers found: 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Logical device information
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Logical device number 0
   Logical device name                      : 
   RAID level                               : 10
   Status of logical device                 : Degraded
   Size                                     : 1906678 MB
   Stripe-unit size                         : 256 KB
   Read-cache mode                          : Enabled
   MaxIQ preferred cache setting            : Disabled
   MaxIQ cache setting                      : Disabled
   Write-cache mode                         : Disabled (write-through)
   Write-cache setting                      : Disabled (write-through)
   Partitioned                              : Yes
   Protected by Hot-Spare                   : No
   Bootable                                 : Yes
   Failed stripes                           : No
   Power settings                           : Disabled
   --------------------------------------------------------
   Logical device segment information
   --------------------------------------------------------
   Group 0, Segment 0                       : Present (0,4)       JPW9K0N1224P3L
   Group 0, Segment 1                       : Present (0,5)       JPW9K0N20BRBEE
   Group 1, Segment 0                       : Present (0,6) Z1W0GP8R0000C404211V
   Group 1, Segment 1                       : Rebuilding (0,7)       JPW9K0N208AKHE

Logical device number 1
   Logical device name                      : data
   RAID level                               : 10
   Status of logical device                 : Optimal
   Size                                     : 3809270 MB
   Stripe-unit size                         : 256 KB
   Read-cache mode                          : Enabled
   MaxIQ preferred cache setting            : Disabled
   MaxIQ cache setting                      : Disabled
   Write-cache mode                         : Disabled (write-through)
   Write-cache setting                      : Disabled (write-through)
   Partitioned                              : Unknown
   Protected by Hot-Spare                   : No
   Bootable                                 : No
   Failed stripes                           : No
   Power settings                           : Disabled
   --------------------------------------------------------
   Logical device segment information
   --------------------------------------------------------
   Group 0, Segment 0                       : Present (0,0)       JK11E1B9KGVDKT
   Group 0, Segment 1                       : Present (0,1)       JK11A8B9KMHYWF
   Group 1, Segment 0                       : Present (0,2)             YGKAZYUK
   Group 1, Segment 1                       : Present (0,3)             YGKAZMNK



Command completed successfully.
root@some-server:/usr/StorMan# 

This example here is still the same server, where the 8th HDD, identified by (0,7), is rebuilding. Both logical devices are RAID 10's, with the first raid being the last four disks and being degraded due to one disk missing/being rebuilt.

physical device - PD

This is usually your best shot for fast information.

root@some-server:/usr/StorMan# ./arcconf getconfig 1 pd
Controllers found: 1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Physical Device information
----------------------------------------------------------------------
      Device #0
         Device is a Hard drive
         State                              : Online
         Supported                          : Yes
         Transfer Speed                     : SATA 3.0 Gb/s
         Reported Channel,Device(T:L)       : 0,0(0:0)
         Reported Location                  : Enclosure 0, Slot 0
         Reported ESD(T:L)                  : 2,0(0:0)
         Vendor                             : Hitachi
         Model                              : HUA722020ALA330
         Firmware                           : JKAOA3EA
         Serial number                      : JK11E1B9KGVDKT
         Size                               : 1907729 MB
         Write Cache                        : Disabled (write-through)
         FRU                                : None
         S.M.A.R.T.                         : No
         S.M.A.R.T. warnings                : 0
         Power State                        : Full rpm
         Supported Power States             : Full rpm,Powered off,Reduced rpm
         SSD                                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Capable                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Assigned               : No
         NCQ status                         : Enabled
      Device #1
         Device is a Hard drive
         State                              : Online
         Supported                          : Yes
         Transfer Speed                     : SATA 3.0 Gb/s
         Reported Channel,Device(T:L)       : 0,1(1:0)
         Reported Location                  : Enclosure 0, Slot 1
         Reported ESD(T:L)                  : 2,0(0:0)
         Vendor                             : Hitachi
         Model                              : HUA722020ALA330
         Firmware                           : JKAOA3EA
         Serial number                      : JK11A8B9KMHYWF
         Size                               : 1907729 MB
         Write Cache                        : Disabled (write-through)
         FRU                                : None
         S.M.A.R.T.                         : No
         S.M.A.R.T. warnings                : 0
         Power State                        : Full rpm
         Supported Power States             : Full rpm,Powered off,Reduced rpm
         SSD                                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Capable                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Assigned               : No
         NCQ status                         : Enabled
      Device #2
         Device is a Hard drive
         State                              : Online
         Supported                          : Yes
         Transfer Speed                     : SAS 3.0 Gb/s
         Reported Channel,Device(T:L)       : 0,2(2:0)
         Reported Location                  : Enclosure 0, Slot 2
         Reported ESD(T:L)                  : 2,0(0:0)
         Vendor                             : HITACHI
         Model                              : HUS723020ALS640
         Firmware                           : A440
         Serial number                      : YGKAZYUK
         World-wide name                    : 5000CCA01CBD19CF
         Size                               : 1907729 MB
         Write Cache                        : Disabled (write-through)
         FRU                                : None
         S.M.A.R.T.                         : No
         S.M.A.R.T. warnings                : 0
         Power State                        : Full rpm
         Supported Power States             : Full rpm,Powered off
         SSD                                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Capable                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Assigned               : No
      Device #3
         Device is a Hard drive
         State                              : Online
         Supported                          : Yes
         Transfer Speed                     : SAS 3.0 Gb/s
         Reported Channel,Device(T:L)       : 0,3(3:0)
         Reported Location                  : Enclosure 0, Slot 3
         Reported ESD(T:L)                  : 2,0(0:0)
         Vendor                             : HITACHI
         Model                              : HUS723020ALS640
         Firmware                           : A440
         Serial number                      : YGKAZMNK
         World-wide name                    : 5000CCA01CBD14E3
         Size                               : 1907729 MB
         Write Cache                        : Disabled (write-through)
         FRU                                : None
         S.M.A.R.T.                         : No
         S.M.A.R.T. warnings                : 0
         Power State                        : Full rpm
         Supported Power States             : Full rpm,Powered off
         SSD                                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Capable                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Assigned               : No
      Device #4
         Device is a Hard drive
         State                              : Online
         Supported                          : Yes
         Transfer Speed                     : SATA 3.0 Gb/s
         Reported Channel,Device(T:L)       : 0,4(4:0)
         Reported Location                  : Connector 1, Device 0
         Vendor                             : Hitachi
         Model                              : HUA722010CLA330
         Firmware                           : JP4OA3EA
         Serial number                      : JPW9K0N1224P3L
         Size                               : 953869 MB
         Write Cache                        : Disabled (write-through)
         FRU                                : None
         S.M.A.R.T.                         : No
         S.M.A.R.T. warnings                : 0
         Power State                        : Full rpm
         Supported Power States             : Full rpm,Powered off,Reduced rpm
         SSD                                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Capable                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Assigned               : No
         NCQ status                         : Enabled
      Device #5
         Device is a Hard drive
         State                              : Online
         Supported                          : Yes
         Transfer Speed                     : SATA 3.0 Gb/s
         Reported Channel,Device(T:L)       : 0,5(5:0)
         Reported Location                  : Connector 1, Device 1
         Vendor                             : Hitachi
         Model                              : HUA722010CLA330
         Firmware                           : JP4OA3EA
         Serial number                      : JPW9K0N20BRBEE
         Size                               : 953869 MB
         Write Cache                        : Disabled (write-through)
         FRU                                : None
         S.M.A.R.T.                         : No
         S.M.A.R.T. warnings                : 0
         Power State                        : Full rpm
         Supported Power States             : Full rpm,Powered off,Reduced rpm
         SSD                                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Capable                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Assigned               : No
         NCQ status                         : Enabled
      Device #6
         Device is a Hard drive
         State                              : Online
         Supported                          : Yes
         Transfer Speed                     : SAS 3.0 Gb/s
         Reported Channel,Device(T:L)       : 0,6(6:0)
         Reported Location                  : Connector 1, Device 2
         Vendor                             : SEAGATE
         Model                              : ST1000NM0023
         Firmware                           : 0003
         Serial number                      : Z1W0GP8R0000C404211V
         World-wide name                    : 5000C500571785AC
         Size                               : 953869 MB
         Write Cache                        : Disabled (write-through)
         FRU                                : None
         S.M.A.R.T.                         : No
         S.M.A.R.T. warnings                : 0
         Power State                        : Full rpm
         Supported Power States             : Full rpm,Powered off
         SSD                                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Capable                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Assigned               : No
      Device #7
         Device is a Hard drive
         State                              : Rebuilding
         Supported                          : Yes
         Transfer Speed                     : SATA 3.0 Gb/s
         Reported Channel,Device(T:L)       : 0,7(7:0)
         Reported Location                  : Connector 1, Device 3
         Vendor                             : Hitachi
         Model                              : HUA722010CLA330
         Firmware                           : JP4OA3EA
         Serial number                      : JPW9K0N208AKHE
         Size                               : 953869 MB
         Write Cache                        : Disabled (write-through)
         FRU                                : None
         S.M.A.R.T.                         : No
         S.M.A.R.T. warnings                : 0
         Power State                        : Full rpm
         Supported Power States             : Full rpm,Powered off,Reduced rpm
         SSD                                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Capable                : No
         MaxIQ Cache Assigned               : No
         NCQ status                         : Enabled
      Device #8
         Device is an Enclosure services device
         Reported Channel,Device(T:L)       : 2,0(0:0)
         Enclosure ID                       : 0
         Type                               : SES2
         Vendor                             : ADAPTEC
         Model                              : Virtual SGPIO
         Firmware                           : 0001
         Status of Enclosure services device


Command completed successfully.

./arcconf RESCAN

Rescans all drives, to find new drives which were not automatically found.

./arcconf SETALARM

Test, silence, switch a controllers sound alarm.

outlook

Further the Storage Manager can be used for live RAID level migration or online capacity expansion (./arcconf MODIFY) and other smut, but for now that's enough.

Proxmox user account

posted on 2014-10-28 17:05:12

To create a user account in the proxmox web interface (manager interface of the hypervisor, reachable via https://<server-ip_or_fqdn>:8006) with proper rights management, do this:

  1. create the VM
  2. check that Storage View is NOT chosen in the dropdown menu in the upper left part
  3. click on Datacenter folder on the left tree menu
  4. open tab Users
  5. add user, use Proxmox VE authentication server as realm (This saves the user info in /etc/pve/priv/shadow.cfg, instead of maybe /etc/passwd when using Linux PAM standard authentication.)
  6. choose the VM in the left tree frame
  7. go to tab Permissions
  8. add permission, choosing user and PVEVMAdmin
  9. if the user should be able to create his own VM's, give him the PVEAdmin role

That should be about it.

parted

posted on 2014-10-11 15:27:56

Sometimes you have to partition disks by hand. For some people, parted is the weapon of choice.

If so, keep in mind you only use it for partitioning. Filesystems are not implemented and parted may tell you so, too. Besides you won't get filesystems created by it. Just use the mkfs.xxx tools at hand. It's just sad that half finished programs are distributed... banana software - it matures in the works of the customer. :(

Back to the posts intention: There are two ways to use parted. Either via the interactive parted-shell, or directly from the commandline.

Most needed commands in the shell might be:

a   = align-check = check alignment to sectors (min or opt as params)
p   = print       = show info for chosen disk
sel = select      = choose disk (i.e. /dev/sdb)
u   = unit        = measuring of sizes (i.e. %,MB,GB,...)
mkl = mklabel     = create disk label (i.e. gpt) (mktable = mkt = the same)
mkp = mkpart      = create partitions
rm  = remove      = delete a partition
q   = quit        = exit parted

An overview on the possible sizes you'd most likely use:

MiB  Mebibyte (1048576 bytes)
GiB  Gibibyte (1073741824 bytes)
MB   Megabyte (1000000 bytes)
GB   Gigabyte (1000000000 bytes)
%    procentual (between 0% and 100%) 
s    sectors (logical sector size)

So usually you would want MiB and GiB, I guess.

Sadly, I haven't found out yet how to optimally align the partition onto the harddisks (so it matches it's sectors best). For this I actually used to use parted from the regular bash shell:

parted /dev/sdb mklabel gpt
parted -a optimal /dev/sdb unit gb mkpart primary ext4 2 100%

Nowadays I mostly use parted interactive with procentual parameters.

But for when I don't, here two example workflows

# create a single MBR  partition with an ext4 on the usb stick /dev/sdb
lsblk -f                ## make sure the stick is really on /dev/sdb
parted /dev/sdb p           ## check whats already on the stick
parted /dev/sdb mkl ms y        ## create MBR not GPT
parted /dev/sdb mkp p 0% 100%   ## single primary partition, percentages are used for proper alignment
mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb1         ## create filesystem at last
parted /dev/sdb a opt 1     ## check alignment to be optimal for partition 1

# create the same, but with gpt
lsblk -f
parted /dev/sdb p           
parted /dev/sdb mkl g y     ## create GPT
parted /dev/sdb mkp asdf 0% 100%    ## creates partition with name 'asdf', a name must be specified, ext4 already on it

It seems that currently creating the filesystem only works when using GPT's, and only ext4's can be created. But somewhere I heard that it was officially said that you should use mkfs anyway, and not let parted create filesystems.

Static routing in linux

posted on 2014-10-07 10:46:49

All you need to know to understand for creating static routes:

ip route add {NETWORK} via {IP} dev {DEVICE}

Example when actually used:

ip route add 192.168.55.0/24 via 192.168.1.254 dev eth1

or the old way via the deprecated route command:

route add -net 192.168.55.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.1.254 dev eth1

RedHat Networking Docs (Oracle Linux)

posted on 2014-10-01 12:22:53

Here is a short linklist, because Oracle's documentation is the best I have seen so far.

Oracle Linux Administrator's Guide for Release 6

Part II Networking and Network Services

Chapter 11 Network Configuration

Why is this fine for RedHat stuff?

RHEL / RedHat Enterprise Linux is the 'original' distribution from redhat. Fedora is the 'testing distribution' from the company redhat. Difference between Fedora and RHEL are the lifetimes (support, EOL, update frequencies, up-to-date packages), RHEL is focused on stability. redhat's sources for it's distributions are open to the public. CentOS, Oracle Linux and Scientific Linux are created from the redhat sources, but basically without all the RedHat logos.

Thus, the documentation of the one is sufficient for the other distributions.

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